Volume 3, Issue 4, December 2018, Page: 55-61
Comparative Study of Individuals with and Without Multiple Sclerosis: Overall Profile of Quality of Life, Exercise, Health Behaviors
Anastasia Karageorgou, Department of Physical Education and Sport Science, University of Thessaly, Trikala, Greece
Dimitrios Kokaridas, Department of Physical Education and Sport Science, University of Thessaly, Trikala, Greece
Yiannis Theodorakis, Department of Physical Education and Sport Science, University of Thessaly, Trikala, Greece
Sergios Mousiolis, Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Thessaly, Larisa, Greece
Asterios Patsiaouras, Department of Physical Education and Sport Science, University of Thessaly, Trikala, Greece
Marios Goudas, Department of Physical Education and Sport Science, University of Thessaly, Trikala, Greece
Received: Nov. 16, 2018;       Accepted: Dec. 8, 2018;       Published: Jan. 16, 2019
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijsspe.20180304.12      View  47      Downloads  39
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients differ with healthy populations in quality of life parameters, physical activity participation and health behaviors. However, no research has been conducted yet comparing such differences, outlining an overall profile. The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the profile of Greek MS patients with healthy individuals, as regards to the quality of life, physical activity involvement, adoption of health behaviors, and levels of depression and anxiety. The sample consisted of 26 MS patients and 90 healthy individuals overall 116 participants. Instruments used included the GLTE Questionnaire, habitual physical activity questionnaire, the SF 36, the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Baecke and the Nutritional Behaviors questionnaire. T-test for independent variables was used to locate differences between individuals with or without MS and according to gender. Significance level was set at p <.05. The results showed MS patients as choosing light physical activity (PA) levels compared to healthy participants choosing moderate levels of PA. Healthy individuals also achieved higher scores in leisure time, sport and total physical activity index, exhibiting lower levels of anxiety and depression and better perceived quality of life compared to patients with MS. The profile of MS patients was associated with light PA, lower perceived quality of life, higher anxiety and depression as compared to healthy individuals. Future suggestions were made to examine application of exercise programs and their effect on psychological parameters of individuals with and without MS.
Physical Activity, Psychological Parameters, Multiple Sclerosis
To cite this article
Anastasia Karageorgou, Dimitrios Kokaridas, Yiannis Theodorakis, Sergios Mousiolis, Asterios Patsiaouras, Marios Goudas, Comparative Study of Individuals with and Without Multiple Sclerosis: Overall Profile of Quality of Life, Exercise, Health Behaviors, International Journal of Sports Science and Physical Education. Vol. 3, No. 4, 2018, pp. 55-61. doi: 10.11648/j.ijsspe.20180304.12
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Tsungou, G., Tzinalis, A. and Bellali, Th. (2016) Psychosocial dimensions and quality of life of patients with multiple sclerosis: Review of quantitative and qualitative studies for the period 2000-2015.
Goodin, D. S., et al. (2002). Disease modifying therapies in multiple sclerosis: Report of the Therapeutics and Technology Assessment Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology, 58, 169 - 178.
Browne, P., Chandraratna, D., Angood, C., Tremlett, H., Baker, C., Taylor, B. V. and Thompson, A. J. (2014). Atlas of Multiple Sclerosis 2013: A growing global problem with widespread inequity. Neurology, 83 (11), 1022-1024.
Tomassini, V, Onesti, E and Mainero, C. (2005). Sex hormones modulate brain damage in multiple sclerosis: MRI evidence. Journal of Neurology and Psychiatry 76, 272-275.
Miller, D., et al. (2005). Clinically isolated syndromes suggestive of multiple sclerosis, Part 1: Natural history, pathogenesis, diagnosis and prognosis. Lancet Neurol, 4, 281.
Kokaridas, (2010). Exercise and Disability: personalization, adaptations and integration prospects. Thessaloniki: Kyriakidis Publications.
Hauser, S and Josephson, S. A (2013). Harrison. Clinical Neurology. Parisianou Publications.
Buhse, M., Banker, WM. and Clement, LM. (2014). Factors associated with health- related quality of life among older people with multiple sclerosis. JMS Care, 16, 10-19.
Kargarfard, M., Eetemadifar, M., Mehrabi, M., Maghzi, A. H. and Hayatbakhsh M. R. (2012). Fatigue, depression, and health-related quality of the life in patients with multiple sclerosis in Isfahan, Iran. European Journal of Neurology 19, 431-437.
Fruewald, S., Loeffler-Stastka, H., Eher, R., Saletu, B. and Baumhacki, U. (2008). Depression and quality of life in multiple sclerosis. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 104, 257-261.
Siegert, R. J. and Abernethy, D. A. (2005). Depression in multiple sclerosis: a review. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 76 (4), 469-475.
Rickards, H. (2005). Women confronting the reality of multiple sclerosis: a qualitative model of self-healing. PhD Thesis, Department of Health Promotion and Education, University of Utah.
Makri, S. (2013). Quality of life management of patients with multiple sclerosis. MSc Thesis. University of Peloponnese.
Marck, C. H., Hadgkiss, E. J., Weiland, T. J., Van der Meer, D. M., Pereira, N. G. and Jelinek, G. A. (2014). Physical activity and associated levels of disability and quality of life in people with multiple sclerosis: a large international survey. BMC neurology, 14 (1), 143.
Romberg, A., Viranen, A. and Ruutiainen J. (2005). Long-time exercise improves functional impairment but not quality of life in multiple sclerosis. Journal of Neurology, 252, 839-845.
Motl, R. W. and Snook, E. M. (2008). Physical activity, self-efficacy, and quality of life in multiple sclerosis. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 35 (1), 111.
Dalgas, U., Stenager, E., Jakobsen, J., Petersen, T., Hansen, HJ., Knudsen, C, Overgaard, K. and Ingemann-Hansen, T. (2010). Fatigue, mood and quality of life improve in MS patients after progressive resistance training. Multiple Sclerosis, 16, (4). 480-490.
Garopoulou, B. (2012). Physical activity and quality of life of patients with multiple sclerosis (case study). Doctoral thesis. Thessaloniki.
Belbasis, L., Bellou, V., Evangelou, E., Ioannidis, J. P., & Tzoulaki, I. (2015). Environmental risk factors and multiple sclerosis: an umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. The Lancet Neurology, 14 (3), 263-273.
Salzer, J., Hallmans, G., Nyström, M., Stenlund, H., Wadell, G. and Sundström, P. (2013). Smoking as a risk factor for multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis Journal, 19 (8), 1022-1027.
Kastania, T. and Tokmakidis, S. (2008). Exercise as a means of promoting functional capacity and quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis. Archives of Hellenic Medicine 25: 720-728.
Polykandriotis, M. and Kyritsi, E. (2006). Quality of life of patients with multiple sclerosis. Nursing, 45 (2), 207-214.
Theofilou, P. (2013). Sociodemographic and clinical determinants of quality of life and health representations in Greek Patients with multiple sclerosis. Europe’s Journal of Psychology, 9, 33-50.
Samartzis, L., Gavala, E., Zoukow, Y., Aspiotis, A. and Thomaides. T. (2014). Perceived cognitive decline in multiple sclerosis impacts quality of life independently of depression. Rehabilitation Research and Practice, 1-6.
Hadgkiss, EJ., Jelinek, GA., Weiland, TJ., Pereira, NG., Marck, CH. and van der Meer DM. (2015). The association of diet with quality of life, disability, and replase rate in an international sample of people with multiple sclerosis. Nutritional Neuroscience, 18 (3), 125-136.
Godin, G. and Shephard, R. J. (1985). Psycho-social predictors of exercise intentions among spouses. Canadian journal of applied sport sciences. Journal canadien des sciences appliquees au sport, 10 (1), 36-43.
Theodorakis, G. and Xasandra, M. (2005). Smoking and exercise, Part 2: Differences between trainees and non-trainees. Searches in Physical Education and Sports, 3 (3), 239-248.
Baecke, J. A. H., Burema, J. and Frijters, J. E. R. (1982). A short questionnaire for the measurement of habitual physical activity in epidemiological studies. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 36, 936-942.
Theodoropoulos, E., Kartelliotis, K., Geladas, N. and Nassis, G. (2008). Physical activity and health-related quality of life. Proceedings of the 10th Panhellenic Congress of Sports Psychology.
Blatsis, P. (2012). The relationship between smoking and physical activity among adults following a sedentary life style. Inquiries in Sport and Physical Education, 10 (2), 80-90.
Anagnostopoulos, F., Niakas, D., & Pappa, E. (2005). Construct validation of the Greek SF-36 health survey. Quality of Life Research, 14 (8), 1959-1965.
Ware Jr, J. E. and Sherbourne, C. D. (1992). The MOS 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36): I. Conceptual framework and item selection. Medical care, 473-483.
Bebetsos, E., Theodorakis, I., Laparidis, K and Chroni, S. (2000). Reliability and validity of Nutritional Behaviors questionnaire. Sports Performance and Health, 2, 191 – 203/
Heatherton, T., Kozlwski, L., Frecker, R. and Fagerstrom, K. (1991). The Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence: a revision of the Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire. British Journal of Addiction, 86, 9, 1119-1127.
Michopoulos, I., Douzenis, A., Kalkavoura, C., Christodoulou, C., Miachalopoulou, P., Kal; emi, G., Fineti, K., Patapis, P., Protopapas, K. and Lykouras, L. (2008). Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS): validation in a Greek general hospital sample. Annals of General Psychiatry, 7, 1-5.
Zigmond, A. S. and Snaith, R. P. (1983). The hospital anxiety and depression scale. Acta psychiatrica scandinavica, 67 (6), 361-370.
Learmonth, Y. C. and Motl, R. W. (2016). Physical activity and exercise training in multiple sclerosis: a review and content analysis of qualitative research identifying perceived determinants and consequences. Disability and Rehabilitation, 38 (13), 1227-1242.
Benito-León, J., Manuel Morales, J., Rivera-Navarro, J. and Mitchell, A. J. (2003). A review about the impact of multiple sclerosis on health-related quality of life. Disability and Rehabilitation, 25 (23), 1291-1303.
Mitchell, A. J., Benito-León, J., González, J. M. M. and Rivera-Navarro, J. (2005). Quality of life and its assessment in multiple sclerosis: integrating physical and psychological components of wellbeing. The Lancet Neurology, 4 (9), 556-566.
Janzen, W., Turpin, K. V., Warren, S. A., Marrie, R. A. and Warren, K. G. (2013). Change in the health-related quality of life of multiple sclerosis patients over 5 years. International journal of MS care, 15 (1), 46-53.
Patti, F., Pozzilli, C., Montanari, E., Pappalardo, A., Piazza, L., Levi, A., Onesti., E. and Pesci, I. (2007). Effects of education level and employment status on HRQoL in early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis Journal, 13 (6), 783-791.
Motl, R. W. and McAuley, E. (2009). Pathways between physical activity and quality of life in adults with multiple sclerosis. Health Psychology, 28 (6), 682.
Motl, R. W. and McAuley, E. (2014). Physical activity and health-related quality of life over time in adults with multiple sclerosis. Rehabilitation Psychology, 59 (4), 415.
Wood, B., Van Der Mei, I. A. F., Ponsonby, A. L., Pittas, F., Quinn, S., Dwyer, T. and Taylor, B. V. (2013). Prevalence and concurrence of anxiety, depression and fatigue over time in multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis Journal, 19 (2), 217-224.
Ensari, I., Motl, R. W. and Pilutti, L. A. (2014). Exercise training improves depressive symptoms in people with multiple sclerosis: results of a meta-analysis. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 76 (6), 465-471.
Dalgas, U., Stenager, E. and Sloth, M. (2014). The effect of exercise on depressive symptoms in multiple sclerosis based on a meta‐analysis and critical review of the literature. European Journal of Neurology, 22 (3), 443-e34.
Casetta, I., Trond, R., Nortvedt, MW.,. Economou, NT., De gennaro, R., Fazio, P., Cesnil, E., Govoni, V. and Granieri, E. (2009). Gender differences in health-related quality of life in multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis, 15, 1339-1346.
Esposito, S., Bonavita, S., Sparaco, M., Gallo, A., and Tedeschi, G. (2017). The role of diet in multiple sclerosis: A review. Nutritional Neuroscience, 1-14.
Hempel, S., Graham, G. D., Fu, N., Estrada, E., Chen, A. Y., Miake-Lye, I. and Wallin, M. T. (2017). A systematic review of modifiable risk factors in the progression of multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis Journal, 23 (4), 525-533.
Turner, A. P., Hartoonian, N., Maynard, C., Leipertz, S. L. and Haselkorn, J. K. (2015). Smoking and physical activity: examining health behaviors and 15-year mortality among individuals with multiple sclerosis. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation, 96 (3), 402-409.
Browse journals by subject