Volume 2, Issue 5, October 2017, Page: 61-66
‘Being Anxious’ and Kinematics Putting Performance: A Phenomenological Case Report
Samantha Bernardi, Department of Brain and Behavioral Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy
Received: Oct. 2, 2017;       Accepted: Oct. 28, 2017;       Published: Dec. 20, 2017
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijsspe.20170205.11      View  2737      Downloads  158
Introduction. Golf putting requires accurate and repeatable stroke especially under pressure (e.g., audience presence, ego-relevance of the task). The performance-anxiety relationship has been frequently studied, but the underlying mechanisms still remain inconclusive. Phenomenology insists that psychology should focus on meaning and investigate the essence of human experience. This paper examines the experience of ‘being anxious’ and the putting performance issues reported by an elite golfer under pressure. Methods. An Italian professional golfer refers alteration in putting performance (e.g., lack consistency stroke) and low ability to manage unexpected events. Case design consists in: evaluation session conduct by psychologist; experimental phase into we recoding kinematics putting performance by SAM PuttLab System. Conclusions. For player, putting analysis shown an unexpected improvement of performance in stressful situations than other sessions. A possible interpretation of these results takes into account to the personal experience of ‘being anxious’, to overcoming the subject-object dichotomy. Indeed, anxiety is not in the head, but it can be understood only within the life of sport performers. I believe that the phenomenological framework and quantitative analysis could be offer a new way of study, learning and teaching in sport psychology.
Putting Performance, Anxiety, Sport Psychology, Sport Sciences, Phenomenology, Kinematic Movement
To cite this article
Samantha Bernardi, ‘Being Anxious’ and Kinematics Putting Performance: A Phenomenological Case Report, International Journal of Sports Science and Physical Education. Vol. 2, No. 5, 2017, pp. 61-66. doi: 10.11648/j.ijsspe.20170205.11
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Karlsen, J. (2010). Performance in golf putting (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from the Norwegian school of sport sciences.
Alexander, D. L., & Kern, W. (2005). Drive for Show and Putt for Dough? Journal of Sports Economics, 6, 46-60.
Marquerdt, C. (2007). The SAM PuttLab: Concept and PGA Tour Data. Annual Review of Golf Coaching, 101-120.
Cooke, A., Kavussanu, M., McIntyre, D., Boardley, I. D. & Ring, C. (2011). Effects of competitive pressure on expert performance: Underlying psychological, physiological, and kinematic mechanisms. Psychophysiology, 48, 1146-1156.
Cooke, A., Kavussanu, M., McIntyre, D., & Ring, C. (2010). Psychological, muscular and kinematic factors mediate performance under pressure. Psychophysiology, 47, 1109–1118.
Baumeister, R. F. (1984). Choking under pressure: Self-consciousness and paradoxical effects of incentives on skilful performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 610–620.
Hill, D. M., Hanton, S., Matthews, N., & Fleming, S. (2010). Choking in sport: A review. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 3, 24–39.
Hill, D. M., Hanton, S., Fleming, S., & Matthews, N. (2009). A re-examination of choking in sport. European Journal of Sport Science, 9, 203–212.
Mullen, R., Hardy, L., & Tattersall, A. (2005). The effects of anxiety on motor performance: A test of the conscious processing hypothesis. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 27, 212–225.
Toner, J., & Moran, A., (2011). The effects of conscious processing on golf putting proficiency and kinematics. Journal of Sport Sciences, 29 (7), 673–683
Schaefer, J., Vella, S. A., Allen, M. S., &. Magee, C. A. (2016). Competition Anxiety, Motivation, and Mental Toughness in Golf. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 28, 309-320.
Mahoney, J. W., Gucciardi, D. F., Ntoumanis, N., & Mallet, C. J. (2014). Mental toughness in sport: Motivational antecedents and associations with performance and psychological health. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 36, 281–292.

Otten, M. (2009). Choking vs. clutch performance: A study of sport performance under pressure. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 31, 583–601.
Swann, C., Crust, L., Jackman, P., Vella, S. A., Allen, M. S., & Keegan, R. (2016). Performing under pressure: Exploring the psychological state underlying clutch performance in sport. Journal of Sport Sciences, 1-9. DOI: 10.1080/02640414.2016.1265661.
Hill, D., Hanton, S., Matthews, N., & Fleming, S. (2010). A qualitative exploration of choking in elite golf. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 4, 221–240.
Nesti, M. (2011). Phenomenology and Sports Psychology: Back To The Things Themselves! Sport, Ethics and Philosophy, 5 (3), 285-296.
Dale, G. A. (1996). Existential Phenomenology: Emphasizing the Experience of the Athlete in Sport Psychology Research. Applied Research, 10, 307-321.
Hunter, J., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). The Phenomenology of Body-Mind: The Contrasting Cases of Flow in Sports and Contemplation. Anthropology of Consciousness, 11 (3-4), 4-20.
Ravn, S. & Christensen, M. K. (2014). Listening to the body? How phenomenological insights can be used to explore a golfer’s experience of the physicality of her body. Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health, 6 (4), 462–477.
Breivik, G. (2008). Bodily movement – The fundamental dimensions. Sport, Ethics and Philosophy, 2 (3), 337-352.
Allen‐Collinson, J. (2009). Sporting embodiment: sports studies and the (continuing) promise of phenomenology. Qualitative Research in Sport and Exercise, 1 (3), 279-296.
Müller, A. (2011). From Phenomenology to Existentialism – Philosophical Approaches Towards Sport. Sport, Ethics and Philosophy, 5 (3), 202-216.
Martínková, I., & Parry, J. (2011). An Introduction To The Phenomenological Study Of Sport. Sport, Ethics and Philosophy, 5 (3), 185-201.
Eichberg, H. (2013). Back to The Phenomena (of Sport) – or Back to The Phenomenologists? Towards a Phenomenology of (Sports) Phenomenology. Sport, Ethics and Philosophy, 7 (2), 271-282.
Stolz, S. A. (2013). Phenomenology and Physical Education. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 45 (9), 949-962.
Merleau-Ponty, M., 1962. The phenomenology of perception. London: Routledge.
Merleau-Ponty, M., 2001. Phenomenology of perception, trans. C. Smith. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Heidegger, M. (1962). Being and time. New York: Harper & Row.
Arciero, G., Gaetano, P., Maselli, P., & Gentili, N. (2004). Identity, personality and emotional regulation. In Cognition and psychotherapy 2nd ed., A. Freeman, M. J. Mahoney, P. Devito eds: Springer, 7–18.
Arciero, G., & Bondolfi, G. (2011). Selfhood Identity and Personality Styles. John Wiley & Sons. 

Giorgi A, & Giorgi B. Phenomenological psychology. In: Willig C, Stainton-Rogers W, editors. The Sage handbook of qualitative research in psychology. London: Sage; 2008.
Browse journals by subject