Volume 1, Issue 3, December 2016, Page: 28-34
Effect of Difficulty Level and Time-Pressure on the Morning-Evening Differences in Accuracy and Consistency of Throwing Darts Among 9-10 Year-Old Boys
Yousri Elghoul, High Institute of Sport and Physical Education, Sfax University, Sfax, Tunisia
Mohamed Frikha, King Faisal University, Department of Physical Education, Al Hufūf, KSA
Nessrine Chaâri, High Institute of Sport and Physical Education, Sfax University, Sfax, Tunisia
Karim Chamari, Aspetar - Qatar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital Doha, Doha, Qatar
Nizar Souissi, Research Laboratory ‘‘Sports Performance Optimization’’ National Center of Medicine and Science in Sports (CNMSS), Tunis, Tunisia
Received: Oct. 28, 2016;       Accepted: Dec. 9, 2016;       Published: Jan. 6, 2017
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijsspe.20160103.11      View  3631      Downloads  137
This study investigated the impact of task difficulty level and time-pressure on the morning-evening changes in psychomotor performance and perceived difficulty to it among 9–10 years-old boys. Twelve healthy right-handed boys (age = 9.8 ± 0.5 years, height = 144 ± 6.2 cm and body mass = 32.7 ± 3.4 kg) volunteered to take part in the study. They were asked to throw darts to a target from a short (2m, SD) and long (2.37m, LD) distances, either in free (no time limitation, NC) or time-pressure (TPC) conditions, on nonconsecutive days and in a counter-balanced randomized order. Mean scores, missed darts and variability of scores were recorded and analyzed using a three-way ANOVA with repeated measures. Intra-aural temperature and perceived difficulty were recorded too. The results showed higher performance in the afternoon than the in the morning, with higher mean scores around the time of maximum oral temperature (p<0.001). The number of missed darts and variability of scores were lower at 17:00 h in comparison with 07:00 h (p<0.05). Perceived difficulty decreased significantly with time-of-day, with greater values at 07:00 h than at 17:00 h (p<0.05). Psychomotor performance was better in the afternoon than the morning. It seems that, in the early morning, children are less sensitive to the increased level of difficulty when under time-pressure than when throwing a greater distance from the target.
Circadian Rhythm, Difficulty Level, Psychomotor Performance, Perceived Difficulty, Time Pressure
To cite this article
Yousri Elghoul, Mohamed Frikha, Nessrine Chaâri, Karim Chamari, Nizar Souissi, Effect of Difficulty Level and Time-Pressure on the Morning-Evening Differences in Accuracy and Consistency of Throwing Darts Among 9-10 Year-Old Boys, International Journal of Sports Science and Physical Education. Vol. 1, No. 3, 2016, pp. 28-34. doi: 10.11648/j.ijsspe.20160103.11
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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