Volume 1, Issue 2, October 2016, Page: 21-27
Determine the Center of Mass Position in Human Undulatory Swimming: A Static Approach
Stefan Hochstein, Motion Science, Institute of Sport Science, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Germany;Department of Training and Movement Science, Institute of Sport Science, University of Bayreuth, Germany
Maria Baumgart, Motion Science, Institute of Sport Science, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Germany
Roy Müller, Motion Science, Institute of Sport Science, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Germany
Reinhard Blickhan, Motion Science, Institute of Sport Science, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Germany
Received: Aug. 24, 2016;       Accepted: Sep. 5, 2016;       Published: Sep. 22, 2016
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijsspe.20160102.12      View  4420      Downloads  174
The knowledge of the actual center of mass (CoM) position enables an estimation of human motion concerning cause-and-effect relations, e.g. using the principles of linear momentum. Although previous analytical methods are able to calculate the CoM, but its precision strongly depends on the quality of the used models and body segments inertial characteristics. Experimental methods provide a more precise location of body’s CoM, but often only in one dimension or with inadequate measurement errors. The aim of this study is primary (i) to show an experimental setup to determine swimmer’s CoM in 2D (sagittal plane) with small errors of the setup and secondary (ii) to show the location as well as (iii) the variation of swimmer’s CoM for different characteristic positions during an undulatory kick cycle. Five female and five male sport students imitated five different positions of an undulatory swimming kick cycle laying sagittal on a triangular platform. The presented method allows to determine the CoM of swimmer’s actual position with measurement errors of maximum 4 cm. Horizontal and vertical position of the CoM as well as the Euclidean distance significantly differs from the hip for all participants and during all investigated phases of a kick cycle.
Center of Mass Location and Variation, Dolphin Kick, Experimental Determination, Setup Error Analysis and Error Propagation
To cite this article
Stefan Hochstein, Maria Baumgart, Roy Müller, Reinhard Blickhan, Determine the Center of Mass Position in Human Undulatory Swimming: A Static Approach, International Journal of Sports Science and Physical Education. Vol. 1, No. 2, 2016, pp. 21-27. doi: 10.11648/j.ijsspe.20160102.12
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Cohen, R. C., Cleary, P. W., Mason, B. R., 2012. Simulations of dolphin kick swimming using smoothed particle hydrodynamics. Human Movement Science, 31(3), 604–619.
De Leva, P., 1996. Adjustments to Zatsiorsky-Seluyanov’s segment inertia parameters. Journal of Biomechanics, 29 (9), 1223–1230.
Durkin, J. L., 2008. Measurement and estimation of human body segment parameters. Handbook of Biomechanics and Human Movement Science, Routledge, Oxford, UK, 197–213.
Enoka, R. M., 2008. Neuromechanics of human movement. Human kinetics.
Fernandes, R., Ribeiro, J., Figueiredo, P., Seifert, L., Vilas-Boas, J., 2012. Kinematics of the hip and body center of mass in front crawl. Journal of Human Kinetics, 33, 15–23.
Figueiredo, P., Vilas-Boas, J. P., Mala, J., Gonalves, P., Fernandes, R. J., 2009. Does the hip reflect the center of mass swimming kinematics? International Journal of Sports Medicine, 30, 779–781.
Gard, S. A., Miff, S. C., Kuo, A. D., 2004. Comparison of kinematic and kinetic methods for computing the vertical motion of the body center of mass during walking. Human movement science 22 (6), 597–610.
Gavilan, A., Arellano, R., Sanders, R., 2006. Underwater undulatory swimming: study of frequency, amplitude and phase characteristics of the body wave. In: Vilas-Boas, J., Alves, F., Marques, A. (Eds.), Xth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming. Portuguese Journal of Sport Sciences, Porto, pp. 35–37.
Hanavan, E. P., 1964. A mathematical model of the human body. Tech. rep., DTIC Document.
Hochmuth, G., 1981. Biomechanik sportlicher Bewegungen, 4th Edition. Sportverlag, Berlin.
Hochstein, S., 2013. Widerstands- und Strömungsbeeinflussung der menschlichen undulatorischen Schwimmbewegung. Ph.D. thesis, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Germany.
Hochstein, S., Blickhan, R., 2011. Vortex re-capturing and kinematics in human underwater undulatory swimming. Human Movement Science, 30 (5), 998–1007.
Hochstein, S., Blickhan, R., 2014. Body movement distribution with respect to swimmer’s glide position in human underwater undulatory swimming. Human Movement Science, 38, 305–318.
Maglischo, C., Maglischo, E., Santos, T., 1987. The relationship between the forward velocity of the center of gravity and the forward velocity of the hip in the four competitive strokes. Journal of Swimming Research, 3, 11–17.
McLean, S., Hinrichs, R., 2000. Buoyancy, gender, and swimming performance. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 16 (3), 248–263.
NASA, 1978. Reference publication – anthropometric source book, technical report 1024. Tech. Rep. I-III, NASA Scientific and Technical Information Office, Springfield.
Psycharakis, S. G., Sanders, R. H., 2009. Validity of the use of a fixed point for intracycle velocity calculations in swimming. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 12 (2), 262–265.
Salow, E., 2011. Schwerpunktskoordinaten in der Dreiecksgeometrie. Retrieved from http://www.vivat-geo.de/schwerpunkts-koordinaten.html.
Zatsiorsky, V., Seluyanov, V., 1985. Estimation of the mass and inertia characteristics of the human body by means of the best predictive regression equations. Biomechanics IX-B, 233–239.
Browse journals by subject